On February 3, 2010, Emilio Carino was driving his van in the Bronx with two passengers. While stopped at a red light, the van was struck in the rear by another vehicle.

Carino and his passengers sued the other driver who conceded liability. A trial on damages ensued and the Bronx jury awarded pain and

On April 2, 2006, Lari Konfidan was driving in the right northbound lane on Third Avenue approaching 34th Street in New York City when a taxi in the lane next to him struck his car and caused it to spin out of control and smash into a parked car.

Upon impact, Konfidan’s right shoulder hit