On November 15, 2003, Conchita Ortiz tripped and fell over a building entryway’s improperly raised half-step platform-like structure at 975 Walton Avenue in the Bronx. She sustained a lumbar compression fracture and in her ensuing lawsuit, the jury found that the building owner was negligent (and that plaintiff was too – each was held to

On March 6, 1997, Louis Ferrigno, a 29 year old carpenter, was driving on a county road in New York when a large tree fell onto his car and crushed it causing him severe head and neck injuries.

Ten years later his case against the county for negligence came to trial. His claim was based